TAHOE ARTS PROJECT: Educational Outreach Program

Vox Musica TAP

ONLINE STUDY GUIDE & RESOURCES

January 27 – 31, 2014
Description

Vox Musica’s Educational Outreach Program serves as a means of discovery for students new to music (or to formal music instruction in general) and as a valuable source of expert training, historical education, and inspiration for young students, singers and or musicians. It integrates Vox Musica community arts resources—professional artists (musicians, composers, conductors, and educators)—into a comprehensive, needs-based program that underscores the critical role that the arts play in shaping a student’s overall well-being and academic achievement. Vox Musica ensemble members and/or special guest artists/composers will work with participating schools to provide students with a variety of educational activities (e.g. coaching, mentoring, master classes, workshops, and compositional competitions, lecture-concerts, choral festivals, and skills-targeted lessons). Topics may include but will not be limited to, vocal technique, music theory, sight singing, solfege, music terminology, music history and ensemble-building exercises. Vox Musica program staff will conduct evaluations of all completed activities including and assessment of the student learning outcomes.

Overview

Vox Musica, with present an educational program at thirteen school partners in the greater Tahoe Region. These institutions will be enriched with Vox Musica’s arts resources, hands on demonstrations, engaging activities, group singing, and professional musical performances for interested students. Students will learn about choral and Vocal singing and brief historical description of vocal styles and history as the voices of Vox Musica offer their musical presentations that bring music history to life through song, instruments, demonstrations, and participatory activities.

LITERATURE

(Selections will be made from the following literature.)

High School/ Middle Schools

I. Gregorian Chant: Ave Maria – Gregorian Chant
II. Renaissance Motet: Ave Maria – Laurus Patavus (c1500)
III. Modern: Ave Maria – César Alejandro Carrillo (b1957)
IV. World Music: Ave Maria – Byzantine Chant
V. World Music: Mamao Čveno – Ioseb Kechaqmadze (b1938)
VI. World Music: Somaguaza – Traditional South African Song
VII. American Bluegrass: Parting Glass – traditional Irish Song
VIII. Classical: Ode to Joy – Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
IX. World Music: Det Lisle Bånet – arr. Tone Krohn (b1960)

Middle Schools/ Elementary Schools

I. Gregorian Chant: Ave Maria – Gregorian Chant
II. Renaissance Motet: Ave Maria – Laurus Patavus (c1500)
III. Modern: Ave Maria – César Alejandro Carrillo (b1957)
IV. World Music: Ave Maria – Byzantine Chant
V. World Music: Somaguaza – Traditional South African Song
VI. World Music: Det Lisle Bånet – arr. Tone Krohn (b1960)
VII. American Bluegrass: Parting Glass – traditional Irish Song
VIII. Classical: Ode to Joy – Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
IX. Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star – arr. Jyoti Josahentara (b1951)
X. Sing a song of Six Pence – arr. Vox Musica
XI. Maggie and Milly and Molly and May – David Husser (b1981)

MUSICAL UNDERSTANDINGS & FURTHER LEARNING

I. Gregorian Chant: Ave Maria

Gregorian chant is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the western Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries. Gregorian chants were organized initially into types of modes. A mode is a collection of pitches that include specific musical characteristic, intervallic patterns relative to a referential final pitch. Melodic patterns are born out of conjunct and disjunct tetrachords (4 note scales). Gregorian melodies are traditionally written using neumes, an early form of musical notation from which the modern four-line and five-line staff developed. Multi-voice elaborations of Gregorian chant, known as organum, were an early stage in the development of Western polyphony.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– an general understanding of early music notation, modes and key centers.
– distinguish the characteristics of the musical style of gregorian chant.

Video:
A Choir Singing the Ave Maria Chant followed by a Renaissance Motet

II. Renaissance Motet: Ave Maria

The Motet is one of the most important genres of the Renaissance, for it represents a type of sacred composition that, unlike the Mass, was not strictly tied to the liturgy. This genre allowed the composer more freedom to experiment with compositions that were not necessarily dependent on a preexisting melody (cantus firmus) and nonliturgical texts. of The renaissance motet is a polyphonic musical setting, sometimes in imitative counterpoint, for chorus, of a Latin text. It is developed in episodic format, with separate phrases of the source text being given independent melodic treatment and contrapuntal development; contrapuntal passages often alternate with monody. The Renaissance period marked the flowering of this form.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– an general understanding of cantus firmus and musical form.
– distinguish the characteristics of the musical style of polyphony.

Video
The Hilliard Ensemble Sings Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c1525 – 1594) Motets

III. Modern: Ave Maria

This setting of the famous text, Ave Maria by a Venezuelan composer, Cesar Carillo. Beyond the obvious modern harmonies the composers uses text painting via the undulating and atmospheric chords to bring forth a prayerfulness with just enough harmonic divergence to give a clear sense of transition from the opening blessings to the emotional high point, ora pro nobis peccatoribus.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– exposure to modern interpretation and harmony.
– relate how the use of the different musical elements of harmony and part writing contributes to the aesthetic appeal of a modern choral work.

Video:
The Netherlands Choir, Cantate Venlo singing Carrillo’s Ave Maria

IV. Byzantine Chant: Ave Maria

The term Byzantine chant refers to any chants used in the Christian Church that relates to the Orthodox religions. These religions use the chant right after performing a rite and is considered sacred in the Church. Its name comes from the fact that Byzantium and Constantinople was the first place where the music was used. These people began using chanting in 330 and continued using it in their religious ceremonies until the area was destroyed in 1453.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– compare and contrast various settings of the same text from different historical origins.

Audio:
Vox Musica Singing Byzantine Music

V. Music from Georgia: Mamao Čveno

The text for this piece was written by, Ilia Chavchavadze (1837-1907) a famous Georgian writer, poet, journalist and lawyer who spearheaded the revival of the Georgian national movement in the second half of the 19th century, during the Russian rule of Georgia. Today he is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern Georgia. He was a devoted protector of the Georgian language and culture from Russification and most of his poetry reflects his position. Chavchavadze was fatally wounded by a gang of assassins, led by Gigla Berbichashvili, in Tsitsamuri, outside Mtskheta.

MaMao Čveno is written in a traditional Georgian style chorale-like piece. It reflects our human existence and ethical values, and the age-old longing to find spiritual perfection. Beautiful chords are disjointed with points of harmonic divergence, dissonance and dramatic textual accentuation to discourage the listener from basking in merely superficial contemplation, increasing our capacity for reflection.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– exposure to world and cultural music.
– an general understanding of vocal qualities, harmonic language, and textual accentuation.
– ability to describe the process of how to learn and sing different languages.

Audio:
Vox Musica Singing MaMao Čveno

Video:
The Georgian Women’s Choir, Gori Choir, singing modern Georgian choral music

VI. Traditional Bantu (South African) Song: Somaguaza

Choral sining plays a major role in traditional Bantu music, in which interlocking contrapuntal lines and lifting voices combine to produce beautiful sound. Boys sing “Somagwaza” as their man-hoot-initiation ceremony. As the young men are receiving instruction about the duties and responsibilities of adult citizenship, they live apart from the rest of the village. During this time, the teachers daub their students with ceremonial clay. When the training is over, the boys – now officially men – race down to the river to wash, singing “Somagwaza” as they go. This song’s words, like those of many ceremonial chants, have lost their exact meanings, but their effectiveness remains. It is felt rather than understood.

Translation:
The boy no longer needs his mother.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– develop and understanding of the oral traditions of african folk music.
– ability to perform several simple rhythmic and melodic patterns together.
– experience how in choral music ones limited skills as an individual is enhanced by the group.

Video:
The African Ngqoko Cultural Group teaching their indigenous style of singing.

Video:
An Interview with The African Ngqoko Cultural Group

The Ngqoko Cultural Group
The Ngqoko Cultural Group is a body of men and women (6 women and 1 man) committed to the indigenous music, songs and traditions of the rural Xhosa communities. Hailing from the humble town of Lady Frere, the Cultural Group was first formed in 1980 when a single bow player and her daughter maintained the practice of playing music together. A German visitor, Dawie Dargie, began working with the Xhosa musicians with the help of Tsolwana Mpayipheli as translator. In 1983, Mpayipheli (“Teacher” as he is respectfully known) discovered several other musicians who joined the group. Over the years, they have become well- known in South Africa, and are also regularly invited to perform internationally.

http://www.kennedy-center.org/explorer/artists/?entity_id=19620&source_type=B

VII. Traditional Irish Song: Parting Glass

The Parting Glass is a Scottish and Irish traditional song, often sung at the end of a gathering of friends. It was allegedly the most popular parting song sung in Scotland before Robert Burns wrote “Auld Lang Syne”. It was made popular by the Canadian Trio, The Wailin Jennys, who are known mostly for their performances and arrangements of Folk pieces and their bluegrass style performances of american folk and pop songs.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– exposure to world and cultural music.
– overview of the hallmarks of ensemble singing.
– an general understanding of the differences between various styles of music.

Video:
The Wailin Jennys singing The Parting Glass

VIII. Classical Music: Ode to Joy

Beethoven had long wanted to set the poem of Friedrich Schiller’s “Ode to Joy” to music because he was fascinated with its themes of freedom and brotherhood. For his Ninth and final symphony, the famous classical composers, Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) did just that. The Ninth, dedicated to Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, influenced composers that followed, including Schubert, Brahms and Mahler. It not only affected them stylistically, but also left them to ponder whether to write more than nine symphonies. However, many critics rejected the work’s encompassing message of unity, calling it “naïve.” Nevertheless, the piece has been used on several occasions throughout history, and more recently at Olympic ceremonies, during the fall of the Berlin Wall, and as the anthem of the European Union.

The ode really isn’t a philosophy—many say it’s not even good poetry. But it makes a connection Beethoven believed in: from Art comes Joy; from Joy comes Brotherhood.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– exposure to the classical genre.
– an understanding of different types of vocal timbres and the vocal coordination’s needed to produce these sounds.

Audio:
Strings Ensemble Playing Ode to Joy

IX. Traditional Norwegian Folk Ballad: Det Lisle Bånet

Norwegian composer and vocalist, Tone Krohn (b1960), writes music for her own ensembles, and other ensembles or choirs; mostly based on the folk music from her native county, Vestfold. Det Lisle Bånet is a typical folk ballad from Telemark county in Norway. A mocking childrens-song that gives human features to animals, and describes a comic situation wherein a fox promises to guard the farmer, Gullmund’s geese. But instead the silly fox eats the geese.

Translation:
Gullmund was off, he’d been asked to a feast
and the fox was left to guard the geese.
Foolish fox, what was he up to?
The baby fell down, cheeks all rosy,
and lured the fox inside.

Gullmund returned from the banquet
and saw a satisfied creature, the fox by the door.
Foolish fox, what was he up to?
The baby fell down, cheeks all rosy,
and lured the fox inside.

Dear Gullmund, stay with me a while,
for he seems prone to fall.
Foolish fox, what was he up to?
The baby fell down, cheeks all rosy,
and lured the fox inside.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– exposure to the folk music of Norway.
– distinguish language characteristics of Norwegian.
– an overview of cultural instrumentation and folk music.

Video:
Trio Mediaeval singing Det Lisle Bånet

X. Three Children’s Songs:

Nothing is more engaging and fulfilling than singing songs that are based off of our beloved children lullabies, stories, and nursery rhymes.

(A) Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star

is a popular English lullaby based off an early 19th-century English poem, The Star by Jane Taylor. The poem, which is in couplet form, was first published in 1806 in Rhymes for the Nursery, a collection of poems by Taylor and her sister Ann. It is sung to the tune of the French melody “Ah! vous dirai-je, Maman”, which was published in 1761 and later arranged by Mozart for a famous set of variations.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– identify the how melodies can be embellished.
– distinguish how tempo, mode, harmony, voicing can effect mood and character of a composition.

(B) Sing a Song of Sixpence

is a well-known English nursery rhyme, perhaps originating in the 18th century. The rhyme’s ultimate origins are uncertain. References have been inferred in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night (c. 1602), (Act II, Scene iii), where Sir Toby Belch tells a clown: “Come on; there is sixpence for you: let’s have a song” and in Beaumont and Fletcher’s Bonduca (1614), which contains the line “Whoa, here’s a stir now! Sing a song o’ sixpence!”

Student Learning Outcomes:
– an understanding of meter, groove and rhythm.

(C) Maggie and Milly and Molly and May

by e.e. cummings was first published in cummings’ fifteenth collection of verse, 95 Poems. Like many of his poems Maggie and milly and molly and may depicts children at play and uses them as a vehicle to arrive at a universal statement about life. Husser’s playful arrangement mimic’s the sing song tone and style common to childhood nursery rhymes. In the story four children have gone to the beach to play and each child describes what they find in the process. Maggie finds a shell, milly a star fish,molly a “horrible thing,” and may a“smooth round stone.” This story is found illustrated and published in many different children’s books throughout the world.

Student Learning Outcomes:
– an understanding of dynamics word paining and text setting.

Audio:
Vox Musica singing Maggie and Milly and Molly and May

OVERVIEW OF STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

Vocal Techniques Covered

Warm-ups, Tone, Pitch, Dynamics, Blend, Languages, Diction, Scales, Vowel Matching, Tuning.

Musical Concepts Learned

Melody, Modes, Phrases; Harmony- Consonance/Dissonance, Texture, Form, Rhythm – Beat, Groove, Meter, Accentuation, Syncopation. Intro to Styles, Periods & Genres: Chant, Renaissance, Contemporary, Classical, Bluegrass, and Folk.

Educational Goals Achieved

Overview of Elements of Music: Properties of Musical Sound: Pitch, Duration, Tone Color, vocal styles and genres, historical and vocal techniques, musical ideas and terminology.

Language Skills

Exposure to Latin, Ukrainian, Russian, Norwegian.

Vox Musica Educational Documents

Vocal Function, Warm-ups, Solfege, and Curwin and Tuning Documents to Support the Choral Music Classroom, Music Education, Choral Ensembles and the Choral Music Ensemble Director.

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